The Numerical Terradynamic Simulation Group (NTSG) is a research center in the University of Montana's W.A. Franke College of Forestry & Conservation pioneering new approaches for landscape ecological and hydrological studies. A major focus of our research is to understand how vegetation responds to climate variability and influences the water, carbon and energy cycles. NTSG conducts research over a broad range of spatial scales, emphasizing emerging technologies in satellite remote sensing, computational modeling and biophysical theory. We are a leader in the development and application of satellite remote sensing for global environmental assessment and monitoring. NTSG is a NASA Earth Science Information Partner (ESIP), developer and repository for a variety of global land data products from satellite Earth missions, including MODIS (MOD16/17) vegetation productivity and evapotranspiration, AMSR land parameters, and SMAP (L4C) carbon flux products.


Submissions from 2011

An operational method to estimate evapotranspiration using MODIS data during winter wheat growing season, Yonghong Yi and Dawen Yang

Changing freeze-thaw seasons in northern high latitudes and associated influences on evapotranspiration, Ke Zhang, John S. Kimball, Youngwook Kim, and Kyle C. McDonald


Underestimated effects of low temperature during early growing season on carbon sequestration of a subtropical coniferous plantation, W.-J. Zhang, H.-M. Wang, F.-T. Yang, Yonghong Yi, X.-F. Wen, X.-M. Sun, G.-R. Yu, Y.-D. Wang, and J.-C. Ning

Response to Comments on "Drought-Induced Reduction in Global Terrestrial Net Primary Production from 2000 Through 2009", Maosheng Zhao and Steven W. Running

MODIS-Derived Terrestrial Primary Production, Maosheng Zhao, Steven W. Running, Faith Ann Heinsch, and Ramakrishna R. Nemani

Submissions from 2010

A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests, Craig D. Allen, Alison K. Macalady, Haroun Chenchouni, D. Bachelet, Nate McDowell, Michel Vennetier, Thomas Kitzberger, Andreas Rigling, David D. Breshears, E. H. Hogg, Patrick Gonzalez, Rod Fensham, Zhen Zhang, Jorge Castro, Natalia Demidova, Jong-Hwan Lim, Gillian Allard, Steven W. Running, Akkin Semerci, and Neil Cobb


Simulations show decreasing carbon stocks and potential for carbon emissions in Rocky Mountain forests over the next century, Céline Boisvenue and Steven W. Running

Development and optimization of an Agro-BGC ecosystem model for C4 perennial grasses, Alan V. Di Vittorio, Ryan S. Anderson, Joseph D. White, Norman L. Miller, and Steven W. Running

The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission, Dara Entekhabi, Eni G. Njoku, Peggy E. O'Neill, Kent H. Kellogg, Wade Crow, Wendy N. Edelstein, Jared K. Entin, Shawn D. Goodman, Thomas J. Jackson, Joel Johnson, John S. Kimball, Jeffrey R. Piepmeier, Randy Koster, Neil Martin, Kyle C. McDonald, M. Moghaddam, Susan Moran, Rolf H. Reichle, J. C. Shi, Michael Spencer, Samuel W. Thurman, Leung Tsang, and Jakob van Zyl

Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing of Daily Land Surface Air Temperature Minima and Maxima From AMSR-E, Lucas A. Jones, Craig R. Ferguson, John S. Kimball, Ke Zhang, Steven Tsz K. Chan, Kyle C. McDonald, Eni G. Njoku, and Eric F. Wood

Recent decline in the global land evapotranspiration trend due to limited moisture supply, Martin Jung, M. Reichstein, Philippe Ciais, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Justin Sheffield, M. L. Goulden, G. B. Bonan, Alessandro Cescatti, Jiquan Chen, Richard de Jeu, A. J. Dolman, W. Eugster, Dieter Gerten, Damiano Gianelle, Nadine Gobron, Jens Heinke, John S. Kimball, Beverly Law, Leonardo Montagnani, Qiaozhen Mu, Brigitte Mueller, K. W. Oleson, D. Papale, Andrew D. Richardson, Olivier Roupsard, Steven W. Running, Enrico Tomelleri, Nicolas Viovy, Ulrich Weber, Christopher Williams, Eric Wood, Sonke Zaehle, and Ke Zhang

An Earth System Data Record for Land Surface Freeze/Thaw State, John S. Kimball, Kyle C. McDonald, Youngwook Kim, J. Lucotch, and Joseph M. Glassy


Global Landscape Freeze-Thaw Classification using Spaceborne Microwave Remote Sensing, Youngwook Kim, John S. Kimball, Kyle C. McDonald, and Joseph M. Glassy


Satellite Derived 30-Year Trends in Terrestrial Frozen & Non-Frozen Seasons, and Associated Impacts to Vegetation and Atmosphere CO2, Youngwook Kim, John S. Kimball, Kyle C. McDonald, and Joseph M. Glassy

Remote sensing analysis of physical complexity of North Pacific Rim rivers to assist wild salmon conservation, Matthew Luck, Niels Maumenee, Diane C. Whited, J. Lucotch, Samantha D. Chilcote, Mark S. Lorang, Daniel Goodman, Kyle C. McDonald, John S. Kimball, and Jack A. Stanford

The Effects of Urbanization on Net Primary Productivity in Southeast China, Dengsheng Lu, Xiaofeng Xu, Hanqin Tian, Emilio Moran, Maosheng Zhao, and Steven W. Running

Impact of satellite based PAR on estimates of terrestrial net primary productivity, Rachel T. Pinker, Maosheng Zhao, Hengmao Wang, and Eric F. Wood


Analysis of the Arctic System for Freshwater Cycle Intensification: Observations and Expectations, Michael A. Rawlins, Michael Steele, Marika M. Holland, Jennifer C. Adam, Jessica E. Cherry, Jennifer A. Francis, Pavel Ya. Groisman, Larry D. Hinzman, Thomas G. Huntington, Douglas L. Kane, John S. Kimball, Ron Kwok, Richard Lammers, Craig M. Lee, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Kyle C. McDonald, Erika Podest, Jonathan Pundsack, Bert Rudels, Mark C. Serreze, Alexander Shiklomanov, Oystein Skagseth, Tara J. Troy, C. J. Vorosmarty, Mark Wensnahan, Eric F. Wood, Rebecca Woodgate, Daqing Yang, Ke Zhang, and Tingjun Zhang


A continuous satellite-derived global record of land surface evapotranspiration from 1983 to 2006, Ke Zhang, John S. Kimball, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, and Steven W. Running

Drought-Induced Reduction in Global Terrestrial Net Primary Production from 2000 Through 2009, Maosheng Zhao and Steven W. Running

Submissions from 2009


The Freeze/Thaw Earth System Data Record: Establishing Baseline F/T Conditions for Future Missions (SMAP), John S. Kimball

A Satellite Approach to Estimate Land-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange for Boreal and Arctic Biomes Using MODIS and AMSR-E, John S. Kimball, Lucas A. Jones, Ke Zhang, Faith Ann Heinsch, Kyle C. McDonald, and Walter C. Oechel


An Earth System Data Record for Land Surface Freeze/Thaw State. Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD), Version 1, John S. Kimball, Kyle C. McDonald, Youngwook Kim, and Joseph M. Glassy


Global Mapping of Landscape Freeze-Thaw Status using Spaceborne Microwave Remote Sensing, Youngwook Kim, John S. Kimball, Kyle C. McDonald, and Joseph M. Glassy


Terrestrial Freeze-Thaw Monitoring in the Northern Hemisphere using Satellite Active and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing, Youngwook Kim, John S. Kimball, Kyle C. McDonald, K. Zhang, and J. Lucotch

Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide, Corinne Le Quere, M. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, Gregg Marland, Laurent Bopp, Philippe Ciais, T. J. Conway, Scott C. Doney, Richard Feely, Pru Foster, Pierre Friedlingstein, Kevin Gurney, R. A. Houghton, Joanna I. House, Chris Huntingford, Peter E. Levy, Mark Lomas, Joseph Majkut, Nicolas Metzl, Jean P. Ometto, Glen P. Peters, Colin Prentice, J. Randerson, Steven W. Running, Jorge L. Sarmiento, Ute Schuster, Stephen Sitch, Taro Takahashi, Nicolas Viovy, Guido R. van der Werf, and F. Ian Woodward

Modelling the forest carbon budget of a Mediterranean region through the integration of ground and satellite data, F. Maselli, M. Chiesi, M. Moriondo, L. Fibbi, M. Bindi, and Steven W. Running

Testing a MODIS Global Disturbance Index across North America, David J. Mildrexler, Maosheng Zhao, and Steven W. Running

The net carbon drawdown of small scale afforestation from satellite observations, Alvaro Montenegro, Michael Eby, Qiaozhen Mu, Mark Mulligan, Andrew J. Weaver, Edward C. Wiebe, and Maosheng Zhao


Satellite assessment of land surface evapotranspiration for the pan-Arctic domain, Qiaozhen Mu, Lucas A. Jones, John S. Kimball, Kyle C. McDonald, and Steven W. Running

Systematic assessment of terrestrial biogeochemistry in coupled climate-carbon models, J. Randerson, Forrest M. Hoffman, Peter Edmond Thornton, Natalie Mahowald, Keith Lindsay, Yen-Huei Lee, Cynthia Nevison, Scott C. Doney, G. B. Bonan, R. Stockli, Curtis Covey, Steven W. Running, and Inez Y. Fung


Terrestrial Ecosystem Adaptation, Steven W. Running and L. Scott Mills

Next-Generation Terrestrial Carbon Monitoring, Steven W. Running, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, John R. G. Townshend, and Dennis Baldocchi

Intercomparison, interpretation, and assessment of spring phenology in North America estimated from remote sensing for 1982-2006, Michael A. White, Kirsten M. de Beurs, Kamel Didan, David W. Inouyes, Andrew D. Richardson, Olaf P. Jensen, John O'Keefe, Gong Zhang, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, Willem J. D. Leeuwen, Jesslyn F. Brown, Allard de Wit, Michael Schaepman, Xioamao Lin, Michael Dettinger, Amey S. Bailey, John S. Kimball, Mark D. Schwartz, Dennis Baldocchi, John T. Lee, and William K. Lauenroth

Satellite based analysis of northern ET trends and associated changes in the regional water balance from 1983 to 2005, Ke Zhang, John S. Kimball, Qiaozhen Mu, Lucas A. Jones, Scott J. Goetz, and Steven W. Running

Submissions from 2008

Satellite-based estimation of surface vapor pressure deficits using MODIS land surface temperature data, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Jennifer Dungan, Michael A. White, Feihua Yang, Andrew Michaelis, Steven W. Running, and Ramakrishna R. Nemani


Contribution of increasing CO2 and climate change to the carbon cycle in China's ecosystems, Qiaozhen Mu, Maosheng Zhao, Steven W. Running, Mingliang Liu, and Hanqin Tian

Multi-sensor model-data fusion for estimation of hydrologic and energy flux parameters, Luigi J. Renzullo, Damian J. Barrett, Alan S. Marks, Michael J. Hill, Juan P. Guerschman, Qiaozhen Mu, and Steven W. Running

Ecosystem Disturbance, Carbon, and Climate, Steven W. Running


Use of FLUXNET in the Community Land Model development, R. Stockli, D. M. Lawrence, G.-Y. Niu, K. W. Oleson, Peter Edmond Thornton, Z.-L. Yang, G. B. Bonan, A. S. Denning, and Steven W. Running

Spatial and temporal variation of runoff in the Yangtze River basin during the past 40 years, Jijun Xu, Dawen Yang, Yonghong Yi, Zhidong Lei, Jin Chen, and Wenjun Yang

Evaluation of MODIS surface reflectance products for wheat leaf area index (LAI) retrieval, Yonghong Yi, Dawen Yang, Jingfeng Huang, and Daoyi Chen


Satellite-based model detection of recent climate-driven changes in northern high-latitude vegetation productivity, Ke Zhang, John S. Kimball, E. H. Hogg, Maosheng Zhao, Walter C. Oechel, John Cassano, and Steven W. Running

Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Primary Production and Carbon Cycle, Maosheng Zhao and Steven W. Running

Submissions from 2007

Northern High-Latitude Ecosystems Respond to Climate Change, Andrew G. Bunn, Scott J. Goetz, John S. Kimball, and Ke Zhang

Application of BIOME-BGC to simulate Mediterranean forest processes, M. Chiesi, F. Maselli, M. Moriondo, L. Fibbi, M. Bindi, and Steven W. Running

Regional evaporation estimates from flux tower and MODIS satellite data, Helen A. Cleugh, Ray Leuning, Qiaozhen Mu, and Steven W. Running

FLUXNET and modelling the global carbon cycle, A. D. Friend, Almut Arneth, Nancy Y. Kiang, Mark Lomas, Jerome Ogee, Christian Rodenbeck, Steven W. Running, Jean-Diego Santaren, Stephen Sitch, Nicolas Viovy, F. Ian Woodward, and Sonke Zaehle

Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing of Boreal and Arctic Soil Temperatures From AMSR-E, Lucas A. Jones, John S. Kimball, K. C. McDonald, Steven Tsz K. Chan, Eni G. Njoku, and Walter C. Oechel


Recent Climate-Driven Increases in Vegetation Productivity for the Western Arctic: Evidence of an Acceleration of the Northern Terrestrial Carbon Cycle, J. S. Kimball, M. Zhao, A. D. McGuire, F. A. Heinsch, J. Clein, M. Calef, W. M. Jolly, S. Kang, S. E. Euskirchen, K. C. McDonald, and Steven W. Running