The Numerical Terradynamic Simulation Group (NTSG) is a research center in the University of Montana's W.A. Franke College of Forestry & Conservation pioneering new approaches for landscape ecological and hydrological studies. A major focus of our research is to understand how vegetation responds to climate variability and influences the water, carbon and energy cycles. NTSG conducts research over a broad range of spatial scales, emphasizing emerging technologies in satellite remote sensing, computational modeling and biophysical theory. We are a leader in the development and application of satellite remote sensing for global environmental assessment and monitoring. NTSG is a NASA Earth Science Information Partner (ESIP), developer and repository for a variety of global land data products from satellite Earth missions, including MODIS (MOD16/17) vegetation productivity and evapotranspiration, AMSR land parameters, and SMAP (L4C) carbon flux products.


Submissions from 2011


30-year Northern Hemisphere freeze/thaw seasonal trends and associated impacts to vegetation growing seasons and carbon exchange, Youngwook Kim, John S. Kimball, K. Zhang, and Kyle C. McDonald

Direct impacts on local climate of sugar-cane expansion in Brazil, Scott R. Loarie, David B. Lobell, Gregory P. Asner, Qiaozhen Mu, and C. B. Field


Recent rates of forest harvest and conversion in North America, Jeffrey G. Masek, Warren B. Cohen, Donald Leckie, Michael A. Wulder, Rodrigo Vargas, Ben de Jong, S. P. Healey, Beverly Law, Richard Birdsey, R. A. Houghton, David J. Mildrexler, Samuel Goward, and W. Brad Smith


A global comparison between station air temperatures and MODIS land surface temperatures reveals the cooling role of forests, David J. Mildrexler, Maosheng Zhao, and Steven W. Running


Satellite Finds Highest Land Skin Temperatures on Earth, David J. Mildrexler, Maosheng Zhao, and Steven W. Running

Evolution of hydrological and carbon cycles under a changing climate, Qiaozhen Mu, Maosheng Zhao, and Steven W. Running

Improvements to a MODIS Global Terrestrial Evapotranspiration Algorithm, Qiaozhen Mu, Maosheng Zhao, and Steven W. Running


Upscaling key ecosystem functions across the conterminous United States by a water-centric ecosystem model, G. Sun, Peter Caldwell, Asko Noormets, S. G. McNulty, Erika Cohen, Jennifer Moore Myers, Jean-Christophe Domec, Emrys Treasure, Qiaozhen Mu, Jingfeng Xiao, Ranjeet John, and Jiquan Chen


China's terrestrial carbon balance: Contributions from multiple global change factors, Hanqin Tian, Jerry M. Melillo, Chaoqun Lu, David W. Kicklighter, Mingliang Liu, Wei Ren, Xiaofeng Xu, Guangsheng Chen, Chi Zhang, Shufen Pan, Jiyuan Liu, and Steven W. Running


Challenges of a Sustained Climate Observing System, Kevin E. Trenberth, Richard A. Anthes, Alan Belward, Otis Brown, Ted Habermann, Thomas R. Karl, Steven W. Running, Barbara Ryan, Michael Tanner, and Bruce Wielicki

Predicting satellite-derived patterns of large-scale disturbances in forests of the Pacific Northwest Region in response to recent climatic variation, R. H. Waring, N. C. Coops, and Steven W. Running

Estimation of Juvenile Salmon Habitat in Pacific Rim Rivers Using Multiscalar Remote Sensing and Geospatial Analysis, Diane C. Whited, John S. Kimball, M. S. Lorang, and Jack A. Stanford


Automated Upscaling of River Networks for Macroscale Hydrological Modeling, Huan Wu, John S. Kimball, Nate Mantua, and Jack Arthur Stanford


Evaluation of MERRA Land Surface Estimates in Preparation for the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission, Yonghong Yi, John S. Kimball, Lucas A. Jones, Rolf H. Reichle, and Kyle C. McDonald

An operational method to estimate evapotranspiration using MODIS data during winter wheat growing season, Yonghong Yi and Dawen Yang

Changing freeze-thaw seasons in northern high latitudes and associated influences on evapotranspiration, Ke Zhang, John S. Kimball, Youngwook Kim, and Kyle C. McDonald


Underestimated effects of low temperature during early growing season on carbon sequestration of a subtropical coniferous plantation, W.-J. Zhang, H.-M. Wang, F.-T. Yang, Yonghong Yi, X.-F. Wen, X.-M. Sun, G.-R. Yu, Y.-D. Wang, and J.-C. Ning

Response to Comments on "Drought-Induced Reduction in Global Terrestrial Net Primary Production from 2000 Through 2009", Maosheng Zhao and Steven W. Running

MODIS-Derived Terrestrial Primary Production, Maosheng Zhao, Steven W. Running, Faith Ann Heinsch, and Ramakrishna R. Nemani

Submissions from 2010

A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests, Craig D. Allen, Alison K. Macalady, Haroun Chenchouni, D. Bachelet, Nate McDowell, Michel Vennetier, Thomas Kitzberger, Andreas Rigling, David D. Breshears, E. H. Hogg, Patrick Gonzalez, Rod Fensham, Zhen Zhang, Jorge Castro, Natalia Demidova, Jong-Hwan Lim, Gillian Allard, Steven W. Running, Akkin Semerci, and Neil Cobb


Simulations show decreasing carbon stocks and potential for carbon emissions in Rocky Mountain forests over the next century, Céline Boisvenue and Steven W. Running

Development and optimization of an Agro-BGC ecosystem model for C4 perennial grasses, Alan V. Di Vittorio, Ryan S. Anderson, Joseph D. White, Norman L. Miller, and Steven W. Running

The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission, Dara Entekhabi, Eni G. Njoku, Peggy E. O'Neill, Kent H. Kellogg, Wade Crow, Wendy N. Edelstein, Jared K. Entin, Shawn D. Goodman, Thomas J. Jackson, Joel Johnson, John S. Kimball, Jeffrey R. Piepmeier, Randy Koster, Neil Martin, Kyle C. McDonald, M. Moghaddam, Susan Moran, Rolf H. Reichle, J. C. Shi, Michael Spencer, Samuel W. Thurman, Leung Tsang, and Jakob van Zyl

Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing of Daily Land Surface Air Temperature Minima and Maxima From AMSR-E, Lucas A. Jones, Craig R. Ferguson, John S. Kimball, Ke Zhang, Steven Tsz K. Chan, Kyle C. McDonald, Eni G. Njoku, and Eric F. Wood

Recent decline in the global land evapotranspiration trend due to limited moisture supply, Martin Jung, M. Reichstein, Philippe Ciais, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Justin Sheffield, M. L. Goulden, G. B. Bonan, Alessandro Cescatti, Jiquan Chen, Richard de Jeu, A. J. Dolman, W. Eugster, Dieter Gerten, Damiano Gianelle, Nadine Gobron, Jens Heinke, John S. Kimball, Beverly Law, Leonardo Montagnani, Qiaozhen Mu, Brigitte Mueller, K. W. Oleson, D. Papale, Andrew D. Richardson, Olivier Roupsard, Steven W. Running, Enrico Tomelleri, Nicolas Viovy, Ulrich Weber, Christopher Williams, Eric Wood, Sonke Zaehle, and Ke Zhang

An Earth System Data Record for Land Surface Freeze/Thaw State, John S. Kimball, Kyle C. McDonald, Youngwook Kim, J. Lucotch, and Joseph M. Glassy


Global Landscape Freeze-Thaw Classification using Spaceborne Microwave Remote Sensing, Youngwook Kim, John S. Kimball, Kyle C. McDonald, and Joseph M. Glassy


Satellite Derived 30-Year Trends in Terrestrial Frozen & Non-Frozen Seasons, and Associated Impacts to Vegetation and Atmosphere CO2, Youngwook Kim, John S. Kimball, Kyle C. McDonald, and Joseph M. Glassy

Remote sensing analysis of physical complexity of North Pacific Rim rivers to assist wild salmon conservation, Matthew Luck, Niels Maumenee, Diane C. Whited, J. Lucotch, Samantha D. Chilcote, Mark S. Lorang, Daniel Goodman, Kyle C. McDonald, John S. Kimball, and Jack A. Stanford

The Effects of Urbanization on Net Primary Productivity in Southeast China, Dengsheng Lu, Xiaofeng Xu, Hanqin Tian, Emilio Moran, Maosheng Zhao, and Steven W. Running

Impact of satellite based PAR on estimates of terrestrial net primary productivity, Rachel T. Pinker, Maosheng Zhao, Hengmao Wang, and Eric F. Wood


Analysis of the Arctic System for Freshwater Cycle Intensification: Observations and Expectations, Michael A. Rawlins, Michael Steele, Marika M. Holland, Jennifer C. Adam, Jessica E. Cherry, Jennifer A. Francis, Pavel Ya. Groisman, Larry D. Hinzman, Thomas G. Huntington, Douglas L. Kane, John S. Kimball, Ron Kwok, Richard Lammers, Craig M. Lee, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Kyle C. McDonald, Erika Podest, Jonathan Pundsack, Bert Rudels, Mark C. Serreze, Alexander Shiklomanov, Oystein Skagseth, Tara J. Troy, C. J. Vorosmarty, Mark Wensnahan, Eric F. Wood, Rebecca Woodgate, Daqing Yang, Ke Zhang, and Tingjun Zhang


A continuous satellite-derived global record of land surface evapotranspiration from 1983 to 2006, Ke Zhang, John S. Kimball, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, and Steven W. Running

Drought-Induced Reduction in Global Terrestrial Net Primary Production from 2000 Through 2009, Maosheng Zhao and Steven W. Running

Submissions from 2009


The Freeze/Thaw Earth System Data Record: Establishing Baseline F/T Conditions for Future Missions (SMAP), John S. Kimball

A Satellite Approach to Estimate Land-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange for Boreal and Arctic Biomes Using MODIS and AMSR-E, John S. Kimball, Lucas A. Jones, Ke Zhang, Faith Ann Heinsch, Kyle C. McDonald, and Walter C. Oechel


An Earth System Data Record for Land Surface Freeze/Thaw State. Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD), Version 1, John S. Kimball, Kyle C. McDonald, Youngwook Kim, and Joseph M. Glassy


Global Mapping of Landscape Freeze-Thaw Status using Spaceborne Microwave Remote Sensing, Youngwook Kim, John S. Kimball, Kyle C. McDonald, and Joseph M. Glassy


Terrestrial Freeze-Thaw Monitoring in the Northern Hemisphere using Satellite Active and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing, Youngwook Kim, John S. Kimball, Kyle C. McDonald, K. Zhang, and J. Lucotch

Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide, Corinne Le Quere, M. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, Gregg Marland, Laurent Bopp, Philippe Ciais, T. J. Conway, Scott C. Doney, Richard Feely, Pru Foster, Pierre Friedlingstein, Kevin Gurney, R. A. Houghton, Joanna I. House, Chris Huntingford, Peter E. Levy, Mark Lomas, Joseph Majkut, Nicolas Metzl, Jean P. Ometto, Glen P. Peters, Colin Prentice, J. Randerson, Steven W. Running, Jorge L. Sarmiento, Ute Schuster, Stephen Sitch, Taro Takahashi, Nicolas Viovy, Guido R. van der Werf, and F. Ian Woodward

Modelling the forest carbon budget of a Mediterranean region through the integration of ground and satellite data, F. Maselli, M. Chiesi, M. Moriondo, L. Fibbi, M. Bindi, and Steven W. Running

Testing a MODIS Global Disturbance Index across North America, David J. Mildrexler, Maosheng Zhao, and Steven W. Running

The net carbon drawdown of small scale afforestation from satellite observations, Alvaro Montenegro, Michael Eby, Qiaozhen Mu, Mark Mulligan, Andrew J. Weaver, Edward C. Wiebe, and Maosheng Zhao


Satellite assessment of land surface evapotranspiration for the pan-Arctic domain, Qiaozhen Mu, Lucas A. Jones, John S. Kimball, Kyle C. McDonald, and Steven W. Running

Systematic assessment of terrestrial biogeochemistry in coupled climate-carbon models, J. Randerson, Forrest M. Hoffman, Peter Edmond Thornton, Natalie Mahowald, Keith Lindsay, Yen-Huei Lee, Cynthia Nevison, Scott C. Doney, G. B. Bonan, R. Stockli, Curtis Covey, Steven W. Running, and Inez Y. Fung


Terrestrial Ecosystem Adaptation, Steven W. Running and L. Scott Mills

Next-Generation Terrestrial Carbon Monitoring, Steven W. Running, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, John R. G. Townshend, and Dennis Baldocchi

Intercomparison, interpretation, and assessment of spring phenology in North America estimated from remote sensing for 1982-2006, Michael A. White, Kirsten M. de Beurs, Kamel Didan, David W. Inouyes, Andrew D. Richardson, Olaf P. Jensen, John O'Keefe, Gong Zhang, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, Willem J. D. Leeuwen, Jesslyn F. Brown, Allard de Wit, Michael Schaepman, Xioamao Lin, Michael Dettinger, Amey S. Bailey, John S. Kimball, Mark D. Schwartz, Dennis Baldocchi, John T. Lee, and William K. Lauenroth

Satellite based analysis of northern ET trends and associated changes in the regional water balance from 1983 to 2005, Ke Zhang, John S. Kimball, Qiaozhen Mu, Lucas A. Jones, Scott J. Goetz, and Steven W. Running

Submissions from 2008

Satellite-based estimation of surface vapor pressure deficits using MODIS land surface temperature data, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Jennifer Dungan, Michael A. White, Feihua Yang, Andrew Michaelis, Steven W. Running, and Ramakrishna R. Nemani