The Numerical Terradynamic Simulation Group (NTSG) is a research center in the University of Montana's W.A. Franke College of Forestry & Conservation pioneering new approaches for landscape ecological and hydrological studies. A major focus of our research is to understand how vegetation responds to climate variability and influences the water, carbon and energy cycles. NTSG conducts research over a broad range of spatial scales, emphasizing emerging technologies in satellite remote sensing, computational modeling and biophysical theory. We are a leader in the development and application of satellite remote sensing for global environmental assessment and monitoring. NTSG is a NASA Earth Science Information Partner (ESIP), developer and repository for a variety of global land data products from satellite Earth missions, including MODIS (MOD16/17) vegetation productivity and evapotranspiration, AMSR land parameters, and SMAP (L4C) carbon flux products.


Submissions from 2000

Prototyping of MODIS LAI and FPAR Algorithm with LASUR and LANDSAT Data, Yuhong Tian, Yuri Knyazikhin, Ranga B. Myneni, Joseph Marion Glassy, Gerard Dedieu, and Steven W. Running

Measuring Fractional Cover and Leaf Area Index in Arid Ecosystems: Digital Camera, Radiation Transmittance, and Laser Altimetry Methods, Michael A. White, Gregory P. Asner, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, J. Privette, and Steven W. Running

Young Students, Satellites Aid Understanding of Climate-Biosphere Link, Michael A. White, Mark D. Schwartz, and Steven W. Running


Parameterization and Sensitivity Analysis of the BIOME-BGC Terrestrial Ecosystem model: Net Primary Production Controls, Michael A. White, Peter Edmond Thornton, Steven W. Running, and Ramakrishna R. Nemani

Submissions from 1999

Comparing global models of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP): the importance of water availability, Galina Churkina, Steven W. Running, and A. L. Schloss


Using the space-borne NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) to determine the frozen and thawed seasons, S. Frolking, Kyle C. McDonald, John S. Kimball, J. B. Way, Reiner Zimmermann, and Steven W. Running


Climate variations and tree growth between 1961 and 1995 in Austria, Hubert Hasenauer, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, Klemens Schadauer, and Steven W. Running

Forest growth response to change climate between 1961 and 1990 in Austria, Hubert Hasenauer, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, Klemens Schadauer, and Steven W. Running


Sensitivity of boreal forest regional water flux and net primary production simulations to sub-grid-scale land cover complexity, John S. Kimball, Steven W. Running, and S. S. Saatchi

A Global Terrestrial Monitoring Network Integrating Tower Fluxes, Flask Sampling, Ecosystem Modeling and EOS Satellite Data, Steven W. Running, Dennis Baldocchi, David Turner, Stith T. Gower, P. S. Bakwin, and Kathy Hibbard


Land Ecosystems and Hydrology, Steven W. Running, G. J. Collatz, J. Washburne, and S. Sorooshian

Radar Remote Sensing Proposed for Monitoring Freeze-Thaw Transitions in Boreal Regions, Steven W. Running, J. B. Way, K. C. McDonald, John S. Kimball, S. Frolking, Alisa Renae Keyser, and R. Zimmerman

An improved algorithm for estimating incident daily solar radiation from measurements of temperature, humidity, and precipitation, Peter Edmond Thornton and Steven W. Running

Remote Sensing Requirements to Drive Ecosystem Models at the Landscape and Regional Scale, R. H. Waring and Steven W. Running

The impact of growing-season length variability on carbon assimilation and evapotranspiration over 88 years in the eastern US deciduous forest, M. A. White, Steven W. Running, and Peter Edmond Thornton

Submissions from 1998

Contrasting Climatic Controls on the Estimated Productivity of Global Terrestrial Biomes, Galina Churkina and Steven W. Running

Analysis of carbon and water fluxes from the NOPEX boreal forest: comparison of measurements with FOREST-BGC simulations, E. Cienciala, Steven W. Running, A. Lindroth, A. Grelle, and M. G. Ryan

Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle, R. W. A. Hutjes, P. Kabat, Steven W. Running, W. J. Shuttleworth, C. Field, B. Bass, M. A. F. da Silva Dias, R. Avissar, A. Becker, M. Claussen, A. J. Dolman, R. A. Feddes, M. Fosberg, Y. Fukushima, J. H. C. Gash, L. Guenni, H. Hoff, P. G. Jarvis, I. Kayane, A. N. Krenke, Changming Liu, M. Meybeck, C. A. Nobre, L. Oyebande, A. Pitman, Roger A. Pielke, M. Raupach, B. Saugier, E. D. Schulze, P. J. Sellers, J. D. Tenhunen, R. Valentini, R. L. Victoria, and C. J. Vorosmarty

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): Land Remote Sensing for Global Change Research, Christopher O. Justice, Eric Vermote, John R. G. Townshend, Ruth Defries, David P. Roy, Dorothy K. Hall, V. Salomonson, J. Privette, George Riggs, A. H. Strahler, Wolfgang Lucht, Ranga B. Myneni, Yuri Knyazikhin, Steven W. Running, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, Zhengming Wan, A. R. Huete, Wim van Leeuwen, Robert E. Wolfe, Louis Giglio, J.-P. Muller, Philip Lewis, and Michael J. Barnsley


Synergistic algorithm for estimating vegetation canopy leaf area index and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation from MODIS and MISR data, Yuri Knyazikhin, J. V. Martonchik, Ranga B. Myneni, D. J. Diner, and Steven W. Running

Simulation Modeling in Ecosystem Science, William K. Laurenroth, Charles D. Canham, Ann P. Kinzig, Karen A. Poiani, W. Michael Kemp, and Steven W. Running

Modeled responses of terrestrial ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO2: a comparison of simulations by the biogeochemistry models of the Vegetation/Ecosystems Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP), Yude Pan, Jerry M. Melillo, A. D. McGuire, David W. Kicklighter, Louis F. Pitelka, Kathy Hibbard, Lars Lowell Pierce, Steven W. Running, Dennis S. Ojima, William J. Parton, David S. Schimel, and VEMAP Participants


A Blueprint for Improved Global Change Monitoring of the Terrestrial Biosphere, Steven W. Running


Assessing simulation ecosystem processes for climate variability research at Glacier National Park, Joseph D. White, Steven W. Running, Peter Edmond Thornton, Robert E. Keane, Kevin C. Ryan, Daniel B. Fagre, and Carl H. Key

Submissions from 1997

Regional ecosystem simulation: A general model for simulating snow accumulation and melt in mountainous terrain, Joseph C. Coughlan and Steven W. Running

Watershed Responses to Climate Change at Glacier National Park, Daniel B. Fagre, Peter L. Comanor, Joseph D. White, F. Richard Hauer, and Steven W. Running

An improved method for estimating surface humidity from daily minimum temperature, John S. Kimball, Steven W. Running, and Ramakrishna R. Nemani

Simulating forest productivity and surface-atmosphere carbon exchange in the BOREAS study region, John S. Kimball, Peter Edmond Thornton, Mike A. White, and Steven W. Running


BIOME-BGC simulations of stand hydrologic process for BOREAS, John S. Kimball, Michael A. White, and Steven W. Running

Estimation of Global Leaf Area Index and Adsorbed Par Using Radioactive Transfer Models, Ranga B. Myneni, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, and Steven W. Running




Continental Scale Variability in Ecosystem Process: Models, Data, and the Role of Disturbance, David S. Schimel, VEMAP Participants, and B. H. Braswell

Generating surfaces of daily meteorological variables over large regions of complex terrain, Peter Edmond Thornton, Steven W. Running, and Michael A. White

Measurement and remote sensing of LAI in Mountain montane ecosystems, Joseph D. White, Steven W. Running, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, Robert E. Keane, and Kevin C. Ryan


A continental phenology model for monitoring vegetation responses to interannual climatic variability, Michael A. White, Peter Edmond Thornton, and Steven W. Running

Submissions from 1996

Strategies for measuring and modelling carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes over terrestrial ecosystems, Dennis Baldocchi, Riccardo Valentini, Steven W. Running, Walt Oechel, and Roger Dahlman


Sensitivity of a general circulation model to global changes in leaf area index, Thomas N. Chase, Roger A. Pielke, T. G. F. Kittel, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, and Steven W. Running

Biophysical aggregations of a forested landscape using an ecological diagnostic system, Joseph C. Coughlan and Steven W. Running


Global net carbon exchange and intra-annual atmospheric CO2 concentrations predicted by an Ecosystem Process Model and Three-Dimensional Atmospheric Transport Model, E. Raymond Hunt Jr., Steve C. Piper, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, Charles D. Keeling, Ralf D. Otto, and Steven W. Running

Simulating effects of fire on northern Rocky Mountain landscapes with the ecological process model FIRE-BGC, Robert E. Keane, Kevin C. Ryan, and Steven W. Running

Testing a Mechanistic Model for Predicting Stand and Tree Growth, Ronda Lee Korol, Kelsey S. Milner, and Steven W. Running

Simulating Seasonal soil water balance in contrasting semi-arid vegetation communities, Robert Garner Kremer and Steven W. Running

A biophysical soil-site model for estimating potential productivity of forested landscapes, Kelsey S. Milner, Steven W. Running, and Dean Wayne Coble

Global dynamic vegetation modelling: coupling biogeochemistry and biogeography models, Ronald P. Neilson and Steven W. Running

Implementation of a hierarchical global vegetation classification in ecosystem function models, Ramakrishna R. Nemani and Steven W. Running


Global vegetation cover changes from coarse resolution satellite data, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, Steven W. Running, Roger A. Pielke, and Thomas N. Chase


The influence of landcover change on global terrestrial biogeochemistry, Steven W. Running, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, Kathy Hibbard, and Galina Churkina

Generating Daily Surfaces of Temperature and Precipitation over Complex Topography, Steven W. Running and Peter Edmond Thornton

Remote Sensing of Forest Fire Severity and Vegetation Recovery, Joseph D. White, Kevin C. Ryan, Carl C. Key, and Steven W. Running

Comparison of available soil water capacity estimated from topography and soil series information, Daolan Zheng, E. R. Hunt Jr., and Steven W. Running